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Assessment of the Impact of Industrial Effluents on the Water Quality of River Kaduna, Nigeria

Authors: Deinmodei M, Anyemedu FO, Ahmed SD, Ameso VC


Discharge of untreated wastewater into water bodies often results in deterioration of the quality of the receiving water. This study assessed the impact of industrial effluent on the water quality of River Kaduna, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from 12 different locations along the river course including its tributaries, and from four selected industries within Kaduna metropolis discharging effluent into the river. Sampling was conducted in the dry season for a period of four months. Samples were analyzed using standard methods and parameters considered include pH, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), temperature, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and microbial (total and faecal coliforms). While some of the parameters analyzed (pH, temperature and nitrate) were within permissible limits of guideline values set by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) of Nigeria, many of them (TSS, conductivity, TDS, BOD5, COD, ammonia, phosphate, total and faecal coliforms) were not. The value of most of the parameters (pH, DO, temperature, TSS, TDS, BOD5, COD, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and faecal coliform) analyzed were higher in the downstream of the sampling points after the industrial discharge points than the upstream. The downstream values of all the parameters were higher than their corresponding upstream values, indicating that discharge of industrial effluent may have impacted on the quality of the river water. Self-purification capacity of the river was not enough to reduce the pollutants levels to acceptable limits. This research shows that industrial effluent is potentially impacting the river water.

Affiliations: National Water Resources Institute, Kaduna, Nigeria.
Keywords: Impact, Industrial Effluent, Pollution Level, River Kaduna, Water Quality
Published date: 2020/12/30

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ISSN: 2635-3342 (Print)

ISSN: 2635-3350 (Online)

DOI: In progress

ISI Impact Factor: In progress

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Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Ugbowo, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.