Effect of Extraction Methods on the Physico-chemical Properties of Shea Butter Produced from Selected Shea Kernels
Authors: Saba AM, Baba AH, Mohammed IY, Mohammed A
DOI Info: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6724410
Shea kernel processing method and the method used in the extraction of the shea butter significantly influence the properties of the shea butter. Traditional extraction, screw expression and solvent extraction methods were used to extract butter from both optimally processed and locally processed kernels. The variations in roasting temperature, roasting time, particle size of the kernel, solvent type and time of contact between the pulverized kernel and the solvent have significant effect on the physico-chemical properties. Shea butter produced from optimum kernel processing conditions of 4.3-day conditioning period, 86 oC processing temperature and 120 minutes boiling duration using optimum traditional extraction method at a processing condition of 30 oC roasting temperature, 60 min roasting time, 300 rpm kneading speed and 6.4 h time lag between kernel milling and Shea paste kneading resulted in physical properties of 36.05%, 1.4418, 0.92 gcm-3, 30 oC, for yield, refractive index, density and melting point respectively. The chemical properties were 0.8936%, 1.53 meqkg-1, 181.45 meqKOH-1g-1 and 10.99% for free fatty acid, peroxide value, saponification matter and unsaponifiable fraction respectively. Results for shea butter produced from optimally processed kernel but using mechanical screw expression and later solvent extraction method were also reported. This work established that best quality shea butter is obtained from optimally processed shea kernel using optimum traditional extraction method.
Affiliations: Department of Chemical Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic PMB 55 Bida, Nigeria.
Keywords: Shea Butter, Physico-chemical Properties, Shea Kernel, Processing Conditions, Kneading
Published date: 2022/06/30